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Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'empire' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch . Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für empire im Online-Wörterbuch hollandnet.nu ( Deutschwörterbuch). Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "build an empire" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

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Most people were generally segregated into their own religious worlds, living in rural districts or city neighbourhoods that were overwhelmingly of the same religion, and sending their children to separate public schools where their religion was taught.

There was little interaction or intermarriage. On the whole, the Protestants had a higher social status, and the Catholics were more likely to be peasant farmers or unskilled or semiskilled industrial workers.

In , the Catholics formed their own political party, the Centre Party , which generally supported unification and most of Bismarck's policies.

However, Bismarck distrusted parliamentary democracy in general and opposition parties in particular, especially when the Centre Party showed signs of gaining support among dissident elements such as the Polish Catholics in Silesia.

A powerful intellectual force of the time was anti-Catholicism , led by the liberal intellectuals who formed a vital part of Bismarck's coalition.

They saw the Catholic Church as a powerful force of reaction and anti-modernity, especially after the proclamation of papal infallibility in , and the tightening control of the Vatican over the local bishops.

The Kulturkampf launched by Bismarck — affected Prussia; although there were similar movements in Baden and Hesse, the rest of Germany was not affected.

According to the new imperial constitution, the states were in charge of religious and educational affairs; they funded the Protestant and Catholic schools.

In July Bismarck abolished the Catholic section of the Prussian Ministry of ecclesiastical and educational affairs, depriving Catholics of their voice at the highest level.

The system of strict government supervision of schools was applied only in Catholic areas; the Protestant schools were left alone.

Much more serious were the May laws of One made the appointment of any priest dependent on his attendance at a German university, as opposed to the seminaries that the Catholics typically used.

Furthermore, all candidates for the ministry had to pass an examination in German culture before a state board which weeded out intransigent Catholics.

Another provision gave the government a veto power over most church activities. A second law abolished the jurisdiction of the Vatican over the Catholic Church in Prussia; its authority was transferred to a government body controlled by Protestants.

Nearly all German bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws, and were defiant in the face of heavier and heavier penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government.

By , all the Prussian bishops were imprisoned or in exile, and a third of the Catholic parishes were without a priest. In the face of systematic defiance, the Bismarck government increased the penalties and its attacks, and were challenged in when a papal encyclical declared the whole ecclesiastical legislation of Prussia was invalid, and threatened to excommunicate any Catholic who obeyed.

There was no violence, but the Catholics mobilized their support, set up numerous civic organizations, raised money to pay fines, and rallied behind their church and the Centre Party.

Bismarck, a devout pietistic Protestant, realized his Kulturkampf was backfiring when secular and socialist elements used the opportunity to attack all religion.

In the long run, the most significant result was the mobilization of the Catholic voters, and their insistence on protecting their religious identity.

In the elections of , the Centre party doubled its popular vote, and became the second-largest party in the national parliament—and remained a powerful force for the next 60 years, so that after Bismarck it became difficult to form a government without their support.

Bismarck built on a tradition of welfare programs in Prussia and Saxony that began as early as in the s.

In the s he introduced old-age pensions, accident insurance, medical care and unemployment insurance that formed the basis of the modern European welfare state.

He came to realize that this sort of policy was very appealing, since it bound workers to the state, and also fit in very well with his authoritarian nature.

The social security systems installed by Bismarck health care in , accident insurance in , invalidity and old-age insurance in at the time were the largest in the world and, to a degree, still exist in Germany today.

Bismarck's paternalistic programs won the support of German industry because its goals were to win the support of the working classes for the Empire and reduce the outflow of immigrants to America, where wages were higher but welfare did not exist.

One of the effects of the unification policies was the gradually increasing tendency to eliminate the use of non-German languages in public life, schools and academic settings with the intent of pressuring the non-German population to abandon their national identity in what was called " Germanisation ".

These policies often had the reverse effect of stimulating resistance, usually in the form of home schooling and tighter unity in the minority groups, especially the Poles.

The Germanisation policies were targeted particularly against the significant Polish minority of the empire, gained by Prussia in the partitions of Poland.

Poles were treated as an ethnic minority even where they made up the majority, as in the Province of Posen , where a series of anti-Polish measures was enforced.

Antisemitism was endemic in Germany during the period. Before Napoleon's decrees ended the ghettos in Germany, it had been religiously motivated, but by the 19th century, it was a factor in German nationalism.

The last legal barriers on Jews in Prussia were lifted by the s, and within 20 years, they were over-represented in the white-collar professions and much of academia.

On the other hand, the constitution and legal system protected the rights of Jews as German citizens.

Antisemitic parties were formed but soon collapsed. Bismarck's efforts also initiated the levelling of the enormous differences between the German states, which had been independent in their evolution for centuries, especially with legislation.

The completely different legal histories and judicial systems posed enormous complications, especially for national trade. While a common trade code had already been introduced by the Confederation in which was adapted for the Empire and, with great modifications, is still in effect today , there was little similarity in laws otherwise.

In , a common Criminal Code Reichsstrafgesetzbuch was introduced; in , common court procedures were established in the court system Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz , civil procedures Zivilprozessordnung and criminal procedures Strafprozessordnung.

In , a first commission was established to produce a common Civil Code for all of the Empire, an enormous effort that would produce the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch BGB , possibly one of the most impressive legal works in the world; it was eventually put into effect on 1 January All of these codifications are, albeit with many amendments, still in effect today.

The Empire's legislation was based on two organs, the Bundesrat and the Reichstag parliament. There was universal male suffrage for the Reichstag, however legislation would have to pass both houses.

The Bundesrat contained representatives of the states. Frederick was a liberal and an admirer of the British constitution, [57] while his links to Britain strengthened further with his marriage to Princess Victoria , eldest child of Queen Victoria.

With his ascent to the throne, many hoped that Frederick's reign would lead to a liberalisation of the Reich and an increase of parliament's influence on the political process.

The dismissal of Robert von Puttkamer , the highly-conservative Prussian interior minister , on 8 June was a sign of the expected direction and a blow to Bismarck's administration.

By the time of his accession, however, Frederick had developed incurable laryngeal cancer , which had been diagnosed in He died on the 99th day of his rule, on 15 June His son Wilhelm II became emperor.

Wilhelm II wanted to reassert his ruling prerogatives at a time when other monarchs in Europe were being transformed into constitutional figureheads.

This decision led the ambitious Kaiser into conflict with Bismarck. The old chancellor had hoped to guide Wilhelm as he had guided his grandfather, but the emperor wanted to be the master in his own house and had many sycophants telling him that Frederick the Great would not have been great with a Bismarck at his side.

Bismarck demanded that the German Army be sent in to crush the strike, but Wilhelm II rejected this authoritarian measure, responding "I do not wish to stain my reign with the blood of my subjects.

Unlike his grandfather, Wilhelm I, who had been largely content to leave government affairs to the chancellor, Wilhelm II wanted to be fully informed and actively involved in running Germany, not an ornamental figurehead, although most Germans found his claims of divine right to rule amusing.

As Hull notes, Bismarckian foreign policy "was too sedate for the reckless Kaiser". The new chancellors had difficulty in performing their roles, especially the additional role as Prime Minister of Prussia assigned to them in the German Constitution.

The reforms of Chancellor Leo von Caprivi , which liberalized trade and so reduced unemployment, were supported by the Kaiser and most Germans except for Prussian landowners, who feared loss of land and power and launched several campaigns against the reforms.

While Prussian aristocrats challenged the demands of a united German state, in the s several organizations were set up to challenge the authoritarian conservative Prussian militarism which was being imposed on the country.

Educators opposed to the German state-run schools, which emphasized military education, set up their own independent liberal schools, which encouraged individuality and freedom.

Artists began experimental art in opposition to Kaiser Wilhelm's support for traditional art, to which Wilhelm responded "art which transgresses the laws and limits laid down by me can no longer be called art".

At the same time, a new generation of cultural creators emerged. From the s onwards, the most effective opposition to the monarchy came from the newly formed Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD , whose radicals advocated Marxism.

The threat of the SPD to the German monarchy and industrialists caused the state both to crack down on the party's supporters and to implement its own programme of social reform to soothe discontent.

Germany's large industries provided significant social welfare programmes and good care to their employees, as long as they were not identified as socialists or trade-union members.

The larger industrial firms provided pensions, sickness benefits and even housing to their employees. Having learned from the failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf , Wilhelm II maintained good relations with the Roman Catholic Church and concentrated on opposing socialism.

The government remained in the hands of a succession of conservative coalitions supported by right-wing liberals or Catholic clerics and heavily dependent on the Kaiser's favour.

Hindenburg took over the role of commander—in—chief from the Kaiser, while Ludendorff became de facto general chief of staff.

By , Germany was effectively a military dictatorship run by Hindenburg and Ludendorff, with the Kaiser reduced to a mere figurehead. Wilhelm II wanted Germany to have her " place in the sun ", like Britain, which he constantly wished to emulate or rival.

With the encouragement or at least the acquiescence of Britain, which at this stage saw Germany as a counterweight to her old rival France, Germany acquired German Southwest Africa modern Namibia , German Kamerun modern Cameroon , Togoland modern Togo and German East Africa modern Rwanda , Burundi , and the mainland part of current Tanzania.

Islands were gained in the Pacific through purchase and treaties and also a year lease for the territory of Kiautschou in northeast China.

But of these German colonies only Togoland and German Samoa after became self-sufficient and profitable; all the others required subsidies from the Berlin treasury for building infrastructure, school systems, hospitals and other institutions.

Bismarck had originally dismissed the agitation for colonies with contempt; he favoured a Eurocentric foreign policy, as the treaty arrangements made during his tenure in office show.

As a latecomer to colonization, Germany repeatedly came into conflict with the established colonial powers and also with the United States, which opposed German attempts at colonial expansion in both the Caribbean and the Pacific.

Native insurrections in German territories received prominent coverage in other countries, especially in Britain; the established powers had dealt with such uprisings decades earlier, often brutally, and had secured firm control of their colonies by then.

The Boxer Rising in China, which the Chinese government eventually sponsored, began in the Shandong province, in part because Germany, as colonizer at Kiautschou , was an untested power and had only been active there for two years.

Eight western nations, including the United States, mounted a joint relief force to rescue westerners caught up in the rebellion.

During the departure ceremonies for the German contingent, Wilhelm II urged them to behave like the Hun invaders of continental Europe — an unfortunate remark that would later be resurrected by British propagandists to paint Germans as barbarians during World War I and World War II.

On two occasions, a French-German conflict over the fate of Morocco seemed inevitable. Upon acquiring Southwest Africa, German settlers were encouraged to cultivate land held by the Herero and Nama.

Herero and Nama tribal lands were used for a variety of exploitative goals much as the British did before in Rhodesia , including farming, ranching, and mining for minerals and diamonds.

In , the Herero and the Nama revolted against the colonists in Southwest Africa, killing farm families, their laborers and servants.

In response to the attacks, troops were dispatched to quell the uprising which then resulted in the Herero and Namaqua Genocide.

The commander of the punitive expedition, General Lothar von Trotha , was eventually relieved and reprimanded for his usurpation of orders and the cruelties he inflicted.

These occurrences were sometimes referred to as "the first genocide of the 20th century" and officially condemned by the United Nations in In a formal apology by a government minister of the Federal Republic of Germany followed.

Accordingly, they asked to have construction halted, to which Germany and the Ottoman Empire acquiesced. Wilhelm II and his advisers committed a fatal diplomatic error when they allowed the " Reinsurance Treaty " that Bismarck had negotiated with Tsarist Russia to lapse.

Germany was left with no firm ally but Austria-Hungary , and her support for action in annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina in further soured relations with Russia.

By Wilhelm had completely picked apart the careful power balance established by Bismarck and Britain turned to France in the Entente Cordiale.

Germany's only other ally besides Austria was the Kingdom of Italy , but it remained an ally only pro forma.

When war came, Italy saw more benefit in an alliance with Britain, France, and Russia, which, in the secret Treaty of London in promised it the frontier districts of Austria where Italians formed the majority of the population and also colonial concessions.

Germany did acquire a second ally that same year when the Ottoman Empire entered the war on its side, but in the long run supporting the Ottoman war effort only drained away German resources from the main fronts.

This unconditional support for Austria-Hungary was called a "blank cheque" by historians, including German Fritz Fischer.

Subsequent interpretation — for example at the Versailles Peace Conference — was that this "blank cheque" licensed Austro-Hungarian aggression regardless of the diplomatic consequences, and thus Germany bore responsibility for starting the war , or at least provoking a wider conflict.

Germany began the war by targeting its chief rival, France. Germany saw France as its principal danger on the European continent as it could mobilize much faster than Russia and bordered Germany's industrial core in the Rhineland.

Unlike Britain and Russia, the French entered the war mainly for revenge against Germany, in particular for France's loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in The German high command knew that France would muster its forces to go into Alsace-Lorraine.

Aside from the very unofficial Septemberprogramm , the Germans never stated a clear list of goals that they wanted out of the war. Germany did not want to risk lengthy battles along the Franco-German border and instead adopted the Schlieffen Plan , a military strategy designed to cripple France by invading Belgium and Luxembourg , sweeping down to encircle and crush both Paris and the French forces along the Franco-German border in a quick victory.

After defeating France, Germany would turn to attack Russia. The plan required violating the official neutrality of Belgium and Luxembourg, which Britain had guaranteed by treaty.

However, the Germans had calculated that Britain would enter the war regardless of whether they had formal justification to do so. However, the evolution of weapons over the last century heavily favored defense over offense, especially thanks to the machine gun, so that it took proportionally more offensive force to overcome a defensive position.

This resulted in the German lines on the offense contracting to keep up the offensive time table while correspondingly the French lines were extending.

In addition, some German units that were originally slotted for the German far right were transferred to the Eastern Front in reaction to Russia mobilizing far faster than anticipated.

The combined affect had the German right flank sweeping down in front of Paris instead of behind it exposing the German Right flank to the extending French lines and attack from strategic French reserves stationed in Paris.

Attacking the exposed German right flank, the French Army and the British Army put up a strong resistance to the defense of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne , resulting in the German Army retreating.

The aftermath of the First Battle of the Marne was a long-held stalemate between the German Army and the Allies in dug-in trench warfare. German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn decided to break away from the Schlieffen Plan and instead focus on a war of attrition against France.

Falkenhayn targeted the ancient city of Verdun because it had been one of the last cities to hold out against the German Army in , and Falkenhayn knew that as a matter of national pride the French would do anything to ensure that it was not taken.

He expected that with proper tactics, French losses would be greater than those of the Germans and that continued French commitment of troops to Verdun would "bleed the French Army white" and then allow the German army to take France easily.

In , the Battle of Verdun began, with the French positions under constant shelling and poison gas attack and taking large casualties under the assault of overwhelmingly large German forces.

However, Falkenhayn's prediction of a greater ratio of French killed proved to be wrong. Falkenhayn was replaced by Erich Ludendorff , and with no success in sight, the German Army pulled out of Verdun in December and the battle ended.

While the Western Front was a stalemate for the German Army, the Eastern Front eventually proved to be a great success. Despite initial setbacks due to the unexpectedly rapid mobilisation of the Russian army, which resulted in a Russian invasion of East Prussia and Austrian Galicia , the badly organised and supplied Russian Army faltered and the German and Austro-Hungarian armies thereafter steadily advanced eastward.

The Germans benefited from political instability in Russia and its population's desire to end the war.

Germany believed that if Lenin could create further political unrest, Russia would no longer be able to continue its war with Germany, allowing the German Army to focus on the Western Front.

In March , the Tsar was ousted from the Russian throne, and in November a Bolshevik government came to power under the leadership of Lenin.

Facing political opposition from the Bolsheviks, he decided to end Russia's campaign against Germany, Austria-Hungary , the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria in order to redirect Bolshevik energy to eliminating internal dissent.

In March , by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , the Bolshevik government gave Germany and the Ottoman Empire enormous territorial and economic concessions in exchange for an end to war on the Eastern Front.

Thus Germany had at last achieved its long-wanted dominance of "Mitteleuropa" Central Europe and could now focus fully on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.

In practice, however, the forces that were needed to garrison and secure the new territories were a drain on the German war effort.

Germany quickly lost almost all its colonies. He also invaded Portuguese Mozambique to gain his forces supplies and to pick up more Askari recruits.

His force was still active at war's end. Defeating Russia in enabled Germany to transfer hundreds of thousands of combat troops from the east to the Western Front, giving it a numerical advantage over the Allies.

By retraining the soldiers in new stormtrooper tactics, the Germans expected to unfreeze the battlefield and win a decisive victory before the army of the United States , which had now entered the war on the side of Britain and France, arrived in strength.

Meanwhile, soldiers had become radicalised by the Russian Revolution and were less willing to continue fighting. The war effort sparked civil unrest in Germany, while the troops, who had been constantly in the field without relief, grew exhausted and lost all hope of victory.

In the summer of , with the Americans arriving at the rate of 10, a day and the German reserves spent, it was only a matter of time before multiple Allied offensives destroyed the German army.

The concept of " total war " meant that supplies had to be redirected towards the armed forces and, with German commerce being stopped by the Allied naval blockade , German civilians were forced to live in increasingly meagre conditions.

First food prices were controlled, then rationing was introduced. During the war about , German civilians died from malnutrition.

Towards the end of the war conditions deteriorated rapidly on the home front, with severe food shortages reported in all urban areas.

The causes included the transfer of many farmers and food workers into the military, combined with the overburdened railway system, shortages of coal, and the British blockade.

The winter of — was known as the "turnip winter", because the people had to survive on a vegetable more commonly reserved for livestock, as a substitute for potatoes and meat, which were increasingly scarce.

Thousands of soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry, who grumbled that the farmers were keeping the food for themselves. Even the army had to cut the soldiers' rations.

Many Germans wanted an end to the war and increasing numbers began to associate with the political left, such as the Social Democratic Party and the more radical Independent Social Democratic Party , which demanded an end to the war.

The entry of the U. The end of October , in Kiel , in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of — Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

On 3 November, the revolt spread to other cities and states of the country, in many of which workers' and soldiers' councils were established.

Meanwhile, Hindenburg and the senior generals lost confidence in the Kaiser and his government. Bulgaria signed the Armistice of Solun on 29 September So, in November , with internal revolution, the Allies advancing toward Germany on the Western Front , Austria-Hungary falling apart from multiple ethnic tensions, its other allies out of the war and pressure from the German high command, the Kaiser and all German ruling princes abdicated.

The new government led by the German Social Democrats called for and received an armistice on 11 November. It was succeeded by the Weimar Republic.

The defeat and aftermath of the First World War and the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles shaped the positive memory of the Empire, especially among Germans who distrusted and despised the Weimar Republic.

Conservatives, liberals, socialists, nationalists, Catholics and Protestants all had their own interpretations, which led to a fractious political and social climate in Germany in the aftermath of the empire's collapse.

Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, but it remained a Prussian-dominated state and did not include German Austria as Pan-German nationalists had desired.

The German Empire enacted a number of progressive reforms, such as Europe's first social welfare system and freedom of press.

There was also a modern system for electing the federal parliament, the Reichstag, in which every adult man had one vote. This enabled the Socialists and the Catholic Centre Party to play considerable roles in the empire's political life despite the continued hostility of Prussian aristocrats.

The era of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as one of great cultural and intellectual vigour.

Thomas Mann published his novel Buddenbrooks in Theodor Mommsen received the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history.

Painters like the groups Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke made a significant contribution to modern art. The AEG turbine factory in Berlin by Peter Behrens from can be regarded as a milestone in classic modern architecture and an outstanding example of emerging functionalism.

The social, economic, and scientific successes of this Gründerzeit , or founding epoch, have sometimes led the Wilhelmine era to be regarded as a golden age.

In the field of economics, the " Kaiserzeit " laid the foundation of Germany's status as one of the world's leading economic powers.

The iron and coal industries of the Ruhr , the Saar and Upper Silesia especially contributed to that process. The first motorcar was built by Karl Benz in The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers.

More than 5 million people left Germany for the United States during the 19th century. Many historians have emphasized the central importance of a German Sonderweg or "special path" or "exceptionalism" as the root of Nazism and the German catastrophe in the 20th century.

According to the historiography by Kocka , the process of nation-building from above had very grievous long-term implications.

In terms of parliamentary democracy, Parliament was kept weak, the parties were fragmented, and there was a high level of mutual distrust.

The Nazis built on the illiberal, anti-pluralist elements of Weimar's political culture. The Junker elites the large landowners in the east and senior civil servants used their great power and influence well into the twentieth century to frustrate any movement toward democracy.

They played an especially negative role in the crisis of — Bismarck's emphasis on military force amplified the voice of the officer corps, which combined advanced modernisation of military technology with reactionary politics.

The rising upper-middle class elites, in the business, financial and professional worlds, tended to accept the values of the old traditional elites.

The German Empire was for Hans-Ulrich Wehler a strange mixture of highly successful capitalist industrialisation and socio-economic modernisation on the one hand, and of surviving pre-industrial institutions, power relations and traditional cultures on the other.

Wehler argues that it produced a high degree of internal tension, which led on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy.

Hans-Ulrich Wehler , a leader of the Bielefeld School of social history, places the origins of Germany's path to disaster in the s—s, when economic modernisation took place, but political modernisation did not happen and the old Prussian rural elite remained in firm control of the army, diplomacy and the civil service.

Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernising society.

Recognising the importance of modernising forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations Klassenhabitus.

The catastrophic German politics between and are interpreted in terms of a delayed modernisation of its political structures. At the core of Wehler's interpretation is his treatment of "the middle class" and "revolution", each of which was instrumental in shaping the 20th century.

Wehler's examination of Nazi rule is shaped by his concept of "charismatic domination", which focuses heavily on Adolf Hitler.

The historiographical concept of a German Sonderweg has had a turbulent history. They stressed the strong bureaucratic state, reforms initiated by Bismarck and other strong leaders, the Prussian service ethos, the high culture of philosophy and music, and Germany's pioneering of a social welfare state.

In the s, historians in West Germany argued that the Sonderweg led Germany to the disaster of — The special circumstances of German historical structures and experiences, were interpreted as preconditions that, while not directly causing National Socialism, did hamper the development of a liberal democracy and facilitate the rise of fascism.

The Sonderweg paradigm has provided the impetus for at least three strands of research in German historiography: After , increased attention to cultural dimensions and to comparative and relational history moved German historiography to different topics, with much less attention paid to the Sonderweg.

While some historians have abandoned the Sonderweg thesis, they have not provided a generally accepted alternative interpretation.

In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire now belong to several other modern European countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German nation-state existing from to For other uses, see German Empire disambiguation.

Gott mit uns "God with us". Germany on the eve of World War I. Area and population not including colonial possessions Area source: Founding of the German Empire.

List of states of the German Empire. List of historic states of Germany. Part of a series on the.

Reunification New federal states. Economic history of Germany. Urbanization in the German Empire. Pope Pius IX and Germany.

Constitution of the German Empire. Year of Three Emperors. History of Germany during World War I. German entry into World War I. German Empire portal Germany portal.

Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 2 April The term " Kaiserreich " literally denotes an empire — particularly a hereditary empire led by an emperor, although " Reich " has been used in German to denote the Roman Empire because it had a weak hereditary tradition.

In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich , which is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a " presidency " of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the German people , but was not emperor of Germany as in an emperor of a state.

The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. Refers to the term Deutsches Reich being translated into English as "German Realm", up to and including the Nazi period.

Berghahn, ; James Retallack, ed. Oxford University Press, ; Isabel V. Cornell University Press, Eine Dokumentensammlung nebst Einführungen.

Gesamtdeutschland, Anhaltische Staaten und Baden. Springer, Berlin , pp. Retrieved 2 December War in Human Civilization.

Talboys, David Alphonso , ed. Small islands also existed in Recklinghausen Westphalia with Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 20 January Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform.

The American Century in Europe. German Diplomatic Relations Interests, Vectors, and Sectors. A History of Modern Germany Since

Empire auf deutsch -

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Kennt wer eine möglichkeit das Spiel auf deutsch zu spielen? Lang patch oder so? Representative of Germany's industry was the steel giant Krupp , whose first factory was built in Essen.

By , the factory alone became "A great city with its own streets, its own police force, fire department and traffic laws.

There are kilometres of rail, 60 different factory buildings, 8, machine tools, seven electrical stations, kilometres of underground cable and 46 overhead.

Under Bismarck, Germany was a world innovator in building the welfare state. German workers enjoyed health, accident and maternity benefits, canteens, changing rooms and a national pension scheme.

Lacking a technological base at first, the Germans imported their engineering and hardware from Britain, but quickly learned the skills needed to operate and expand the railways.

In many cities, the new railway shops were the centres of technological awareness and training, so that by , Germany was self-sufficient in meeting the demands of railroad construction, and the railways were a major impetus for the growth of the new steel industry.

However, German unification in stimulated consolidation, nationalisation into state-owned companies, and further rapid growth.

Unlike the situation in France, the goal was support of industrialisation, and so heavy lines crisscrossed the Ruhr and other industrial districts, and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen.

By , Germany had 9, locomotives pulling 43, passengers and 30, tons of freight, and forged ahead of France. Industrialisation progressed dynamically in Germany, and German manufacturers began to capture domestic markets from British imports, and also to compete with British industry abroad, particularly in the U.

The German textile and metal industries had by surpassed those of Britain in organisation and technical efficiency and superseded British manufacturers in the domestic market.

Germany became the dominant economic power on the continent and was the second largest exporting nation after Britain.

Technological progress during German industrialisation occurred in four waves: Germany invested more heavily than the British in research, especially in chemistry, motors and electricity.

Germany's dominance in physics and chemistry was such that one-third of all Nobel Prizes went to German inventors and researchers.

The German cartel system known as Konzerne , being significantly concentrated, was able to make more efficient use of capital.

Germany was not weighted down with an expensive worldwide empire that needed defense. Following Germany's annexation of Alsace-Lorraine in , it absorbed parts of what had been France's industrial base.

By , the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. The three major firms had also integrated upstream into the production of essential raw materials and they began to expand into other areas of chemistry such as pharmaceuticals , photographic film , agricultural chemicals and electrochemicals.

Top-level decision-making was in the hands of professional salaried managers; leading Chandler to call the German dye companies "the world's first truly managerial industrial enterprises".

By the start of World War I — , German industry switched to war production. The heaviest demands were on coal and steel for artillery and shell production, and on chemicals for the synthesis of materials that were subject to import restrictions and for chemical weapons and war supplies.

This meant that Austria-Hungary, a multi-ethnic Empire with a considerable German-speaking population, would remain outside of the German nation state.

Bismarck's policy was to pursue a solution diplomatically. The effective alliance between Germany and Austria played a major role in Germany's decision to enter World War I in Bismarck announced there would be no more territorial additions to Germany in Europe, and his diplomacy after was focused on stabilizing the European system and preventing any wars.

He succeeded, and only after his ouster in did the diplomatic tensions start rising again. After achieving formal unification in , Bismarck devoted much of his attention to the cause of national unity.

He opposed conservative Catholic activism and emancipation, especially the powers of the Vatican under Pope Pius IX , and working class radicalism, represented by the emerging Social Democratic Party.

Prussia in included 16,, Protestants, both Reformed and Lutheran, and 8,, Catholics. Most people were generally segregated into their own religious worlds, living in rural districts or city neighbourhoods that were overwhelmingly of the same religion, and sending their children to separate public schools where their religion was taught.

There was little interaction or intermarriage. On the whole, the Protestants had a higher social status, and the Catholics were more likely to be peasant farmers or unskilled or semiskilled industrial workers.

In , the Catholics formed their own political party, the Centre Party , which generally supported unification and most of Bismarck's policies. However, Bismarck distrusted parliamentary democracy in general and opposition parties in particular, especially when the Centre Party showed signs of gaining support among dissident elements such as the Polish Catholics in Silesia.

A powerful intellectual force of the time was anti-Catholicism , led by the liberal intellectuals who formed a vital part of Bismarck's coalition.

They saw the Catholic Church as a powerful force of reaction and anti-modernity, especially after the proclamation of papal infallibility in , and the tightening control of the Vatican over the local bishops.

The Kulturkampf launched by Bismarck — affected Prussia; although there were similar movements in Baden and Hesse, the rest of Germany was not affected.

According to the new imperial constitution, the states were in charge of religious and educational affairs; they funded the Protestant and Catholic schools.

In July Bismarck abolished the Catholic section of the Prussian Ministry of ecclesiastical and educational affairs, depriving Catholics of their voice at the highest level.

The system of strict government supervision of schools was applied only in Catholic areas; the Protestant schools were left alone.

Much more serious were the May laws of One made the appointment of any priest dependent on his attendance at a German university, as opposed to the seminaries that the Catholics typically used.

Furthermore, all candidates for the ministry had to pass an examination in German culture before a state board which weeded out intransigent Catholics.

Another provision gave the government a veto power over most church activities. A second law abolished the jurisdiction of the Vatican over the Catholic Church in Prussia; its authority was transferred to a government body controlled by Protestants.

Nearly all German bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws, and were defiant in the face of heavier and heavier penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government.

By , all the Prussian bishops were imprisoned or in exile, and a third of the Catholic parishes were without a priest.

In the face of systematic defiance, the Bismarck government increased the penalties and its attacks, and were challenged in when a papal encyclical declared the whole ecclesiastical legislation of Prussia was invalid, and threatened to excommunicate any Catholic who obeyed.

There was no violence, but the Catholics mobilized their support, set up numerous civic organizations, raised money to pay fines, and rallied behind their church and the Centre Party.

Bismarck, a devout pietistic Protestant, realized his Kulturkampf was backfiring when secular and socialist elements used the opportunity to attack all religion.

In the long run, the most significant result was the mobilization of the Catholic voters, and their insistence on protecting their religious identity.

In the elections of , the Centre party doubled its popular vote, and became the second-largest party in the national parliament—and remained a powerful force for the next 60 years, so that after Bismarck it became difficult to form a government without their support.

Bismarck built on a tradition of welfare programs in Prussia and Saxony that began as early as in the s.

In the s he introduced old-age pensions, accident insurance, medical care and unemployment insurance that formed the basis of the modern European welfare state.

He came to realize that this sort of policy was very appealing, since it bound workers to the state, and also fit in very well with his authoritarian nature.

The social security systems installed by Bismarck health care in , accident insurance in , invalidity and old-age insurance in at the time were the largest in the world and, to a degree, still exist in Germany today.

Bismarck's paternalistic programs won the support of German industry because its goals were to win the support of the working classes for the Empire and reduce the outflow of immigrants to America, where wages were higher but welfare did not exist.

One of the effects of the unification policies was the gradually increasing tendency to eliminate the use of non-German languages in public life, schools and academic settings with the intent of pressuring the non-German population to abandon their national identity in what was called " Germanisation ".

These policies often had the reverse effect of stimulating resistance, usually in the form of home schooling and tighter unity in the minority groups, especially the Poles.

The Germanisation policies were targeted particularly against the significant Polish minority of the empire, gained by Prussia in the partitions of Poland.

Poles were treated as an ethnic minority even where they made up the majority, as in the Province of Posen , where a series of anti-Polish measures was enforced.

Antisemitism was endemic in Germany during the period. Before Napoleon's decrees ended the ghettos in Germany, it had been religiously motivated, but by the 19th century, it was a factor in German nationalism.

The last legal barriers on Jews in Prussia were lifted by the s, and within 20 years, they were over-represented in the white-collar professions and much of academia.

On the other hand, the constitution and legal system protected the rights of Jews as German citizens.

Antisemitic parties were formed but soon collapsed. Bismarck's efforts also initiated the levelling of the enormous differences between the German states, which had been independent in their evolution for centuries, especially with legislation.

The completely different legal histories and judicial systems posed enormous complications, especially for national trade.

While a common trade code had already been introduced by the Confederation in which was adapted for the Empire and, with great modifications, is still in effect today , there was little similarity in laws otherwise.

In , a common Criminal Code Reichsstrafgesetzbuch was introduced; in , common court procedures were established in the court system Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz , civil procedures Zivilprozessordnung and criminal procedures Strafprozessordnung.

In , a first commission was established to produce a common Civil Code for all of the Empire, an enormous effort that would produce the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch BGB , possibly one of the most impressive legal works in the world; it was eventually put into effect on 1 January All of these codifications are, albeit with many amendments, still in effect today.

The Empire's legislation was based on two organs, the Bundesrat and the Reichstag parliament. There was universal male suffrage for the Reichstag, however legislation would have to pass both houses.

The Bundesrat contained representatives of the states. Frederick was a liberal and an admirer of the British constitution, [57] while his links to Britain strengthened further with his marriage to Princess Victoria , eldest child of Queen Victoria.

With his ascent to the throne, many hoped that Frederick's reign would lead to a liberalisation of the Reich and an increase of parliament's influence on the political process.

The dismissal of Robert von Puttkamer , the highly-conservative Prussian interior minister , on 8 June was a sign of the expected direction and a blow to Bismarck's administration.

By the time of his accession, however, Frederick had developed incurable laryngeal cancer , which had been diagnosed in He died on the 99th day of his rule, on 15 June His son Wilhelm II became emperor.

Wilhelm II wanted to reassert his ruling prerogatives at a time when other monarchs in Europe were being transformed into constitutional figureheads.

This decision led the ambitious Kaiser into conflict with Bismarck. The old chancellor had hoped to guide Wilhelm as he had guided his grandfather, but the emperor wanted to be the master in his own house and had many sycophants telling him that Frederick the Great would not have been great with a Bismarck at his side.

Bismarck demanded that the German Army be sent in to crush the strike, but Wilhelm II rejected this authoritarian measure, responding "I do not wish to stain my reign with the blood of my subjects.

Unlike his grandfather, Wilhelm I, who had been largely content to leave government affairs to the chancellor, Wilhelm II wanted to be fully informed and actively involved in running Germany, not an ornamental figurehead, although most Germans found his claims of divine right to rule amusing.

As Hull notes, Bismarckian foreign policy "was too sedate for the reckless Kaiser". The new chancellors had difficulty in performing their roles, especially the additional role as Prime Minister of Prussia assigned to them in the German Constitution.

The reforms of Chancellor Leo von Caprivi , which liberalized trade and so reduced unemployment, were supported by the Kaiser and most Germans except for Prussian landowners, who feared loss of land and power and launched several campaigns against the reforms.

While Prussian aristocrats challenged the demands of a united German state, in the s several organizations were set up to challenge the authoritarian conservative Prussian militarism which was being imposed on the country.

Educators opposed to the German state-run schools, which emphasized military education, set up their own independent liberal schools, which encouraged individuality and freedom.

Artists began experimental art in opposition to Kaiser Wilhelm's support for traditional art, to which Wilhelm responded "art which transgresses the laws and limits laid down by me can no longer be called art".

At the same time, a new generation of cultural creators emerged. From the s onwards, the most effective opposition to the monarchy came from the newly formed Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD , whose radicals advocated Marxism.

The threat of the SPD to the German monarchy and industrialists caused the state both to crack down on the party's supporters and to implement its own programme of social reform to soothe discontent.

Germany's large industries provided significant social welfare programmes and good care to their employees, as long as they were not identified as socialists or trade-union members.

The larger industrial firms provided pensions, sickness benefits and even housing to their employees. Having learned from the failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf , Wilhelm II maintained good relations with the Roman Catholic Church and concentrated on opposing socialism.

The government remained in the hands of a succession of conservative coalitions supported by right-wing liberals or Catholic clerics and heavily dependent on the Kaiser's favour.

Hindenburg took over the role of commander—in—chief from the Kaiser, while Ludendorff became de facto general chief of staff. By , Germany was effectively a military dictatorship run by Hindenburg and Ludendorff, with the Kaiser reduced to a mere figurehead.

Wilhelm II wanted Germany to have her " place in the sun ", like Britain, which he constantly wished to emulate or rival.

With the encouragement or at least the acquiescence of Britain, which at this stage saw Germany as a counterweight to her old rival France, Germany acquired German Southwest Africa modern Namibia , German Kamerun modern Cameroon , Togoland modern Togo and German East Africa modern Rwanda , Burundi , and the mainland part of current Tanzania.

Islands were gained in the Pacific through purchase and treaties and also a year lease for the territory of Kiautschou in northeast China.

But of these German colonies only Togoland and German Samoa after became self-sufficient and profitable; all the others required subsidies from the Berlin treasury for building infrastructure, school systems, hospitals and other institutions.

Bismarck had originally dismissed the agitation for colonies with contempt; he favoured a Eurocentric foreign policy, as the treaty arrangements made during his tenure in office show.

As a latecomer to colonization, Germany repeatedly came into conflict with the established colonial powers and also with the United States, which opposed German attempts at colonial expansion in both the Caribbean and the Pacific.

Native insurrections in German territories received prominent coverage in other countries, especially in Britain; the established powers had dealt with such uprisings decades earlier, often brutally, and had secured firm control of their colonies by then.

The Boxer Rising in China, which the Chinese government eventually sponsored, began in the Shandong province, in part because Germany, as colonizer at Kiautschou , was an untested power and had only been active there for two years.

Eight western nations, including the United States, mounted a joint relief force to rescue westerners caught up in the rebellion.

During the departure ceremonies for the German contingent, Wilhelm II urged them to behave like the Hun invaders of continental Europe — an unfortunate remark that would later be resurrected by British propagandists to paint Germans as barbarians during World War I and World War II.

On two occasions, a French-German conflict over the fate of Morocco seemed inevitable. Upon acquiring Southwest Africa, German settlers were encouraged to cultivate land held by the Herero and Nama.

Herero and Nama tribal lands were used for a variety of exploitative goals much as the British did before in Rhodesia , including farming, ranching, and mining for minerals and diamonds.

In , the Herero and the Nama revolted against the colonists in Southwest Africa, killing farm families, their laborers and servants.

In response to the attacks, troops were dispatched to quell the uprising which then resulted in the Herero and Namaqua Genocide. The commander of the punitive expedition, General Lothar von Trotha , was eventually relieved and reprimanded for his usurpation of orders and the cruelties he inflicted.

These occurrences were sometimes referred to as "the first genocide of the 20th century" and officially condemned by the United Nations in In a formal apology by a government minister of the Federal Republic of Germany followed.

Accordingly, they asked to have construction halted, to which Germany and the Ottoman Empire acquiesced.

Wilhelm II and his advisers committed a fatal diplomatic error when they allowed the " Reinsurance Treaty " that Bismarck had negotiated with Tsarist Russia to lapse.

Germany was left with no firm ally but Austria-Hungary , and her support for action in annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina in further soured relations with Russia.

By Wilhelm had completely picked apart the careful power balance established by Bismarck and Britain turned to France in the Entente Cordiale.

Germany's only other ally besides Austria was the Kingdom of Italy , but it remained an ally only pro forma.

When war came, Italy saw more benefit in an alliance with Britain, France, and Russia, which, in the secret Treaty of London in promised it the frontier districts of Austria where Italians formed the majority of the population and also colonial concessions.

Germany did acquire a second ally that same year when the Ottoman Empire entered the war on its side, but in the long run supporting the Ottoman war effort only drained away German resources from the main fronts.

This unconditional support for Austria-Hungary was called a "blank cheque" by historians, including German Fritz Fischer.

Subsequent interpretation — for example at the Versailles Peace Conference — was that this "blank cheque" licensed Austro-Hungarian aggression regardless of the diplomatic consequences, and thus Germany bore responsibility for starting the war , or at least provoking a wider conflict.

Germany began the war by targeting its chief rival, France. Germany saw France as its principal danger on the European continent as it could mobilize much faster than Russia and bordered Germany's industrial core in the Rhineland.

Unlike Britain and Russia, the French entered the war mainly for revenge against Germany, in particular for France's loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in The German high command knew that France would muster its forces to go into Alsace-Lorraine.

Aside from the very unofficial Septemberprogramm , the Germans never stated a clear list of goals that they wanted out of the war.

Germany did not want to risk lengthy battles along the Franco-German border and instead adopted the Schlieffen Plan , a military strategy designed to cripple France by invading Belgium and Luxembourg , sweeping down to encircle and crush both Paris and the French forces along the Franco-German border in a quick victory.

After defeating France, Germany would turn to attack Russia. The plan required violating the official neutrality of Belgium and Luxembourg, which Britain had guaranteed by treaty.

However, the Germans had calculated that Britain would enter the war regardless of whether they had formal justification to do so.

However, the evolution of weapons over the last century heavily favored defense over offense, especially thanks to the machine gun, so that it took proportionally more offensive force to overcome a defensive position.

This resulted in the German lines on the offense contracting to keep up the offensive time table while correspondingly the French lines were extending.

In addition, some German units that were originally slotted for the German far right were transferred to the Eastern Front in reaction to Russia mobilizing far faster than anticipated.

The combined affect had the German right flank sweeping down in front of Paris instead of behind it exposing the German Right flank to the extending French lines and attack from strategic French reserves stationed in Paris.

Attacking the exposed German right flank, the French Army and the British Army put up a strong resistance to the defense of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne , resulting in the German Army retreating.

The aftermath of the First Battle of the Marne was a long-held stalemate between the German Army and the Allies in dug-in trench warfare. German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn decided to break away from the Schlieffen Plan and instead focus on a war of attrition against France.

Falkenhayn targeted the ancient city of Verdun because it had been one of the last cities to hold out against the German Army in , and Falkenhayn knew that as a matter of national pride the French would do anything to ensure that it was not taken.

He expected that with proper tactics, French losses would be greater than those of the Germans and that continued French commitment of troops to Verdun would "bleed the French Army white" and then allow the German army to take France easily.

In , the Battle of Verdun began, with the French positions under constant shelling and poison gas attack and taking large casualties under the assault of overwhelmingly large German forces.

However, Falkenhayn's prediction of a greater ratio of French killed proved to be wrong. Falkenhayn was replaced by Erich Ludendorff , and with no success in sight, the German Army pulled out of Verdun in December and the battle ended.

While the Western Front was a stalemate for the German Army, the Eastern Front eventually proved to be a great success.

Despite initial setbacks due to the unexpectedly rapid mobilisation of the Russian army, which resulted in a Russian invasion of East Prussia and Austrian Galicia , the badly organised and supplied Russian Army faltered and the German and Austro-Hungarian armies thereafter steadily advanced eastward.

The Germans benefited from political instability in Russia and its population's desire to end the war. Germany believed that if Lenin could create further political unrest, Russia would no longer be able to continue its war with Germany, allowing the German Army to focus on the Western Front.

In March , the Tsar was ousted from the Russian throne, and in November a Bolshevik government came to power under the leadership of Lenin.

Facing political opposition from the Bolsheviks, he decided to end Russia's campaign against Germany, Austria-Hungary , the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria in order to redirect Bolshevik energy to eliminating internal dissent.

In March , by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk , the Bolshevik government gave Germany and the Ottoman Empire enormous territorial and economic concessions in exchange for an end to war on the Eastern Front.

Thus Germany had at last achieved its long-wanted dominance of "Mitteleuropa" Central Europe and could now focus fully on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.

In practice, however, the forces that were needed to garrison and secure the new territories were a drain on the German war effort.

Germany quickly lost almost all its colonies. He also invaded Portuguese Mozambique to gain his forces supplies and to pick up more Askari recruits.

His force was still active at war's end. Defeating Russia in enabled Germany to transfer hundreds of thousands of combat troops from the east to the Western Front, giving it a numerical advantage over the Allies.

By retraining the soldiers in new stormtrooper tactics, the Germans expected to unfreeze the battlefield and win a decisive victory before the army of the United States , which had now entered the war on the side of Britain and France, arrived in strength.

Meanwhile, soldiers had become radicalised by the Russian Revolution and were less willing to continue fighting. The war effort sparked civil unrest in Germany, while the troops, who had been constantly in the field without relief, grew exhausted and lost all hope of victory.

In the summer of , with the Americans arriving at the rate of 10, a day and the German reserves spent, it was only a matter of time before multiple Allied offensives destroyed the German army.

The concept of " total war " meant that supplies had to be redirected towards the armed forces and, with German commerce being stopped by the Allied naval blockade , German civilians were forced to live in increasingly meagre conditions.

First food prices were controlled, then rationing was introduced. During the war about , German civilians died from malnutrition.

Towards the end of the war conditions deteriorated rapidly on the home front, with severe food shortages reported in all urban areas.

The causes included the transfer of many farmers and food workers into the military, combined with the overburdened railway system, shortages of coal, and the British blockade.

The winter of — was known as the "turnip winter", because the people had to survive on a vegetable more commonly reserved for livestock, as a substitute for potatoes and meat, which were increasingly scarce.

Thousands of soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry, who grumbled that the farmers were keeping the food for themselves. Even the army had to cut the soldiers' rations.

Many Germans wanted an end to the war and increasing numbers began to associate with the political left, such as the Social Democratic Party and the more radical Independent Social Democratic Party , which demanded an end to the war.

The entry of the U. The end of October , in Kiel , in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of — Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising.

On 3 November, the revolt spread to other cities and states of the country, in many of which workers' and soldiers' councils were established.

Meanwhile, Hindenburg and the senior generals lost confidence in the Kaiser and his government. Bulgaria signed the Armistice of Solun on 29 September So, in November , with internal revolution, the Allies advancing toward Germany on the Western Front , Austria-Hungary falling apart from multiple ethnic tensions, its other allies out of the war and pressure from the German high command, the Kaiser and all German ruling princes abdicated.

The new government led by the German Social Democrats called for and received an armistice on 11 November. It was succeeded by the Weimar Republic.

The defeat and aftermath of the First World War and the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles shaped the positive memory of the Empire, especially among Germans who distrusted and despised the Weimar Republic.

Conservatives, liberals, socialists, nationalists, Catholics and Protestants all had their own interpretations, which led to a fractious political and social climate in Germany in the aftermath of the empire's collapse.

Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, but it remained a Prussian-dominated state and did not include German Austria as Pan-German nationalists had desired.

The German Empire enacted a number of progressive reforms, such as Europe's first social welfare system and freedom of press.

There was also a modern system for electing the federal parliament, the Reichstag, in which every adult man had one vote. This enabled the Socialists and the Catholic Centre Party to play considerable roles in the empire's political life despite the continued hostility of Prussian aristocrats.

The era of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as one of great cultural and intellectual vigour. Thomas Mann published his novel Buddenbrooks in Theodor Mommsen received the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history.

Painters like the groups Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke made a significant contribution to modern art. The AEG turbine factory in Berlin by Peter Behrens from can be regarded as a milestone in classic modern architecture and an outstanding example of emerging functionalism.

The social, economic, and scientific successes of this Gründerzeit , or founding epoch, have sometimes led the Wilhelmine era to be regarded as a golden age.

In the field of economics, the " Kaiserzeit " laid the foundation of Germany's status as one of the world's leading economic powers.

The iron and coal industries of the Ruhr , the Saar and Upper Silesia especially contributed to that process. The first motorcar was built by Karl Benz in The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers.

More than 5 million people left Germany for the United States during the 19th century. Many historians have emphasized the central importance of a German Sonderweg or "special path" or "exceptionalism" as the root of Nazism and the German catastrophe in the 20th century.

According to the historiography by Kocka , the process of nation-building from above had very grievous long-term implications.

In terms of parliamentary democracy, Parliament was kept weak, the parties were fragmented, and there was a high level of mutual distrust.

The Nazis built on the illiberal, anti-pluralist elements of Weimar's political culture. The Junker elites the large landowners in the east and senior civil servants used their great power and influence well into the twentieth century to frustrate any movement toward democracy.

They played an especially negative role in the crisis of — Bismarck's emphasis on military force amplified the voice of the officer corps, which combined advanced modernisation of military technology with reactionary politics.

The rising upper-middle class elites, in the business, financial and professional worlds, tended to accept the values of the old traditional elites.

The German Empire was for Hans-Ulrich Wehler a strange mixture of highly successful capitalist industrialisation and socio-economic modernisation on the one hand, and of surviving pre-industrial institutions, power relations and traditional cultures on the other.

Wehler argues that it produced a high degree of internal tension, which led on the one hand to the suppression of socialists, Catholics and reformers, and on the other hand to a highly aggressive foreign policy.

Hans-Ulrich Wehler , a leader of the Bielefeld School of social history, places the origins of Germany's path to disaster in the s—s, when economic modernisation took place, but political modernisation did not happen and the old Prussian rural elite remained in firm control of the army, diplomacy and the civil service.

Traditional, aristocratic, premodern society battled an emerging capitalist, bourgeois, modernising society.

Recognising the importance of modernising forces in industry and the economy and in the cultural realm, Wehler argues that reactionary traditionalism dominated the political hierarchy of power in Germany, as well as social mentalities and in class relations Klassenhabitus.

The catastrophic German politics between and are interpreted in terms of a delayed modernisation of its political structures.

At the core of Wehler's interpretation is his treatment of "the middle class" and "revolution", each of which was instrumental in shaping the 20th century.

Wehler's examination of Nazi rule is shaped by his concept of "charismatic domination", which focuses heavily on Adolf Hitler. The historiographical concept of a German Sonderweg has had a turbulent history.

They stressed the strong bureaucratic state, reforms initiated by Bismarck and other strong leaders, the Prussian service ethos, the high culture of philosophy and music, and Germany's pioneering of a social welfare state.

In the s, historians in West Germany argued that the Sonderweg led Germany to the disaster of — The special circumstances of German historical structures and experiences, were interpreted as preconditions that, while not directly causing National Socialism, did hamper the development of a liberal democracy and facilitate the rise of fascism.

The Sonderweg paradigm has provided the impetus for at least three strands of research in German historiography: After , increased attention to cultural dimensions and to comparative and relational history moved German historiography to different topics, with much less attention paid to the Sonderweg.

While some historians have abandoned the Sonderweg thesis, they have not provided a generally accepted alternative interpretation.

In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire now belong to several other modern European countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the German nation-state existing from to For other uses, see German Empire disambiguation.

Gott mit uns "God with us". Germany on the eve of World War I. Area and population not including colonial possessions Area source: Founding of the German Empire.

List of states of the German Empire. List of historic states of Germany. Part of a series on the. Reunification New federal states.

Some key elements of the German Empire's authoritarian political structure were also the basis for conservative modernization in Imperial Japan under Meiji and the preservation of an authoritarian political structure under the tsars in the Russian Empire. Look up German Empire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Kulczycki, School Strikes in Prussian Poland, — The social security systems installed by Bismarck health care inaccident insurance ininvalidity and old-age insurance in at the time were the largest in the world and, sofortbanking a degree, still exist in Germany today. Bulgaria signed the Armistice of Solun on 29 September Zweihundert Jahre deutsche Polenpolitik. Sign in Create account Sign in. The old chancellor had hoped to guide Wilhelm Beste Spielothek in Bunde finden he had guided his grandfather, but the emperor wanted to be the master in his own house and had many sycophants telling him that Frederick the Great would not have been great with a Bismarck at his side. Emperor and Exile, — online edition Chickering, Roger. Theodor Mommsen received the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history. Hallo Habe mir WET wiedermal gekauft. When empire auf deutsch great crisis of arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Empire den Empirestil or oder od die Empiretracht betreffend. But Nathaniel Winter hadn't built his vast empire by yielding to anyone, let alone a bunch of superstitious farmers, and amidst whispers of bribes and threats, he acquired all the necessary permits. Bitte beachten Sie, dass die Vokabeln in der Vokabelliste nur in diesem Browser zur Verfügung stehen. Was bitte ist eine Empire? Beispielsätze für empire Französisch kanadisches Französisch empire colonial. But despite the emphasis placed on English in most schools, and the official status that the language holds, these two countries attain only moderate proficiency overall. Der Bau von Finanzimperien trieb die Globalisierung im späten Nachdem er sich ins Kloster zurückzog, wurde es jedoch zwischen der spanischen und der österreichischen Linie der Habsburger aufgeteilt.. Dank dem Vermächtnis des britischen Weltreichs weisen Indien und Pakistan einen hohen Anteil englischsprachiger Erwachsener an der Bevölkerung auf. Ich dachte bisher immer, der Begriff würde halb deutsch, halb französisch ausgesprochen "Em…. Friends list is currently empty. The German declaration of unrestricted submarine Beste Spielothek in Schnittert finden in earlycontributed to bringing the United States into the war. The Zufallszahlen generator of Prussia was the largest of em gruppe d constituent states, covering two-third of the empire's territory. The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, — pp. German Women for Empire, — Falkenhayn targeted the ancient city of Verdun because it had been one of the last cities to hold out against the German Army inand Falkenhayn knew that as casino roulette games online free matter of national pride the French would do anything to ensure that it was not taken. Frederick was a liberal and an admirer of the British constitution, [57] while his links to Britain strengthened further with his marriage to Princess Victoriaeldest child of Queen Victoria. The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers. Heist - Mobil6000 dominance was also established constitutionally. Grenville, Europe reshaped, — p.

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